180°– A manoeuvre where the surfboard is turned/pivoted in the wave or landed fin first, and moves forward with the wave, for a period of time, fin first, through an increment of 180°. Can also be performed from a reverse take-off, fin first then pivoting to the normal riding orientation.
The aerial version is performed outside the wave where the board is no longer in contact with the wave. The board pivots 180° from its original position in motion. 180° Switchfoot, on a Surfboard, is jumping or shuffling from the preferred stance set up to the other foot forward while the Surfboard is still travelling in its normal orientation, I.e. nose first.
360° – An advanced manoeuvre where the Surfboard pivots completely around during the ride. The aerial version is as above except is performed out of the wave face, no longer in contact with the water surface.
Aerial – see air.
Active movements – Those that act to cause change in movement. Generated by the rider to change the Surfboard- water interaction.
Air – A general term for manoeuvre/s performed off the water surface while rider remains in contact with a Surfboard.
Angle – A surfer’s direction away from the take off point on the wave.
Backside – A surfer riding with his/her back to the wave.
Bail – To give up on a manoeuvre or task, or diving away from board when caught inside. Not to be encouraged!
Balance – Ability to control equilibrium, controlling the forces generated by the interaction of the sea on the Surfboard with the body and muscles, in order to remain upon the board and in poise.
Base – The bottom of a surfboard.
Beach Break – Type of surf area where the waves form over sand banks.
Bottom Turn – Turning the board after it has slid down the wave face. From this point speed is generated and channelled from the initial drop.
Bone – To fully extend one leg while flexing the other in a freestyle manoeuvre.
Carve – To make turns with the minimum of skidding, characterised by fast, long arcs.
Carving – A riding style that focuses on turning with power and speed.
Classic – A cool thing that has historical significance.
Close Out – A wave that does not peel, and breaks down the line all at once.
Counter rotation – Movement of the upper body opposite the direction of rotation of the Surfboard and lower body.
Consistent – When conditions allow waves to break continuously.
Cross-Stepping – The way a Longboarder controls trim via walking up and down the board, with feet at right angles to the board’s length.
Curl – The point where the wave breaks from, and peels down the line.
Cut Back – Is when a rider turns back to the wave curl, or pocket, providing power and radical vertical sections where the wave is breaking.
Deck – Top part of the surf board where the feet are placed.
Dig a Rail – This happens when too much weight is put too far onto the front, sides or rails. The board sets a track which is hard to recover and will throw the rider off.
Duck Dive – Thrusting the surfboard nose first underneath an oncoming wave during paddle out. The arms push down the nose in a press up position as the rider submerges his head into the water, then he/ she must push down the tail with the legs and feet, in order that the nose comes out first after the wave passes.
Dynamic riding – Describes how the riders centre moves differently to the path of the board, and allows the board to shoot away from a rider while still having control, during the end or beginning of a turn. Especially noticeable on slashing top turns.
Effective posture – The position from which a rider has the most amount of movement options.
Efficiency – The minimum amount of energy needed to accomplish a task, or the right movement and use of the correct amount of energy in order to get the maximum performance out of the equipment and water interface. Ratio between input of energy versus output movement.
Extension – Movements that increase angles of joints in the body, seen with a rise in height or straightening of limbs from flexed position. It often increases pressure and exerts force, generating power through the board into the water. Put simply the motion from crouching to standing.
Flats – The part of the wave away from the breaking point or steepest part, i.e. out on the shoulder.
Flexion – Movements that decrease the angle of a joint in the body, seen with retraction of your arm as you have a cuppa bringing it close enough to drink. In the lower body this is bending your knees. It acts to reduce pressure on the board and water, enabling balance and absorption as the wave pushes the base of the board on a top turn or big drop.
Flip – Inverted aerial manoeuvre.
Floater – Advanced manoeuvre where the surfer rides the back of a wave, sometimes used to clear closing out sections.
Foam Core – Urethane blank that is shaped and then encased in fibreglass and resin, in order to make a surfboard.
Freestyle – Style of riding that seeks tricks.
Frontside – When a surfer rides a wave facing it.
Glide – Ability to maintain speed in flat sections, or a style of riding, usually associated with Longboarding.
Goofy foot – Right foot forward on the surfboard.
Grab – To touch and hold part of the surfboard.
Grommet – Young developing surfer keen to get into the scene. Often seen hanging out at surf schools or shops scrapping among each other.
Hanging Five – Riding a surfboard with one foot or five toes placed over the nose.
Hanging Ten – Riding a surfboard with all ten toes placed over the nose.
Hard edge – A rail shape that slopes down from the deck to meet a flat bottom, near to a right angle on the base.
Helicopter – Manoeuvre where the surfer spins the board around 360° from the nose.
Huck – To throw one’s self recklessly into the unknown.
Impact zone – The area in which the waves break.
Kick out – Exit from the wave when the board turns out and over the crest.
Leash – Attaches humans to their board for safety, and to prevent loss.
Lines – How the waves form from advancing swell, seen as lines rising up as they approach the shore.
Line-up – How surfers position themselves to catch waves at the point where it is beginning to break.
Lip – The tip of the wave as it spills over.
Localism – Hostility towards visitors by local surfers at their local spot.
Log – Old dog of a surfboard, probably very big and long.
Longboard – A surfboard that measures nine feet and up.
Mush – Softly breaking, windblown waves.
Mushburger – Wave that collapses softly and slowly down it’s face.
Nose – Front, or tip of the surfboard.
Noseriding – Surfing on the front third of a surfboard.
Ollie – Springing off the tail of the board into the air.
Outline – The plan shape of the board as viewed from above or below.
Pack – The crowd of surfers at a line-up.
Peak – The steepest part of the wave that rises up before collapsing/ breaking. From which the waves peel either side. Or an area that a surf spot works best.
Pearl – When a surfboard nosedives and digs into the water, usually due to extreme forward trim.
Pivot – How the surfboard is turned about an axis in the water, that point being centred through the surfboard.
Pocket – The steepest area of the wave right next to the point at which it is breaking.
Point Break – Where waves form around a point of land, and peel from this area down the line.
Posture – How a rider stands on the board, body positioning etc.
Pop-up – The technique used to go from lying down, prone, to standing in one smooth collection of movements.
Prone – When a surfer is lying on their stomach
Pump – Pushing the feet in a desired direction by flexing and extending the lower body.
Push-up – When a surfer pushes away from the surfboard, letting the white water flow underneath the body.
Quiver – The selection of boards, of different shapes and sizes, a surfer owns.
Rad – The outstanding ability to surf a wave with skill and dedication, right in the pocket with cutting edge freestyle of the day.
Rails – The edges of the surfboard, running from tip to tail either side.
Rail Line – Length of the rails.
Reef Break – Waves peak up and break over rocks, wrecks or coral growths.
Re-entry – The movement bringing the surfer back down into the face of the wave from the lip or critical section.
Regular foot – Left foot forward on the board.
Rip – Either a skilful surfer or a current forming due to differing depths of water or the sea bed, rushing seaward or across a sea shore.
Rocker – Looking horizontally at the side of a surfboard, how it bends from tip to tail.
Rotation – Circular movement about an axis, of a surfboard or the body of the rider.
Safety – Freedom from the occurrence of risk, danger, or loss.
Stroke – A swim stroke used by swimmers to save energy, which involves two thrusts of energy from one pull back through the water, hand travelling in toward the body for half the stroke, then away for the remainder.
Set – The way that waves bunch up as they arrive in shallow water and also how they organise themselves travelling long distances, normally in distinct groups.
Setting up – Positioning the board in order to perform a manoeuvre.
Shallows – Water next to the coast that is not deep.
Shaper – Surfboard designer and builder.
Shortboard – A surf board under eight feet in length.
Shoulder – The part of the wave away from the breaking point, i.e. the flats.
Sketch – To lose control during part of the turn, ride, or manoeuvre.
Skidding out – The fins no longer hold the board in the water sometimes resulting in a sketch or wipe out.
Slash – The action spraying water from the wave as a surfboard cuts through it powerfully.
Slipping – Movement of a gliding surfboard down a wave face, perpendicular to it’s long axis.
Slot – The steepest part of the wave, by the curl.
Snaking – Catching a wave in front of another surfer who is closer to the breaking part of the wave, from a paddle out position.
Soft edge – At the point where the deck foils down to join the base there is a more rounded and gradual edge on contact with the base.
Soup – The broken, white water part of the waves.
Stall – To slow down the board by loading weight onto the tail and trimming onto the back foot.
Stance – The foot and body position of the surfer.
Steer – Guiding a board via blending pressure, tilting and pivoting.
Stick – Another name for a board of any sort.
Stringer – Wooden strip that reinforces and joins the two sides of the core together within a surfboard.
Swallow tail – A deck with a V-shape cut from the centre of the tail.
Swell – The waves as they travel from the point of their creation in low pressure wind systems towards the coastline, across hundreds of miles of ocean.
Tail – The back of a deck.
Tail Slide – The action of accelerating the tail section of the board sideways through the water, countering the direction of the nose, often releasing the fins from the water.
Take Off – Catching a wave.
Thruster – Three fin set up short board developed for increased manoeuvrability and drive throughout the turn.
Tilt – To place the surfboard on its rails.
Top turn – Turning or pivoting the board at the top of the wave.
Tracking – Digging a rail due to loading too much weight too far forward onto the sides of a board. The board will sink or set a different course to that expected and throw the rider off.
Trimming – Maintaining balance and speed of a surfboard, paddling or standing, by weight adjustment fore and aft.
Tube – As a wave breaks it pitches out and then down allowing a surfer to sneak into a hollow curl of water that is the peak of the breaking wave extending overhead.
Turning radius/turn shape – The distance and space needed for a surfboard to complete a complete change of direction.
Turning Turtle – A way of paddling out and dealing with a broken wave with a large or floaty board, where the surfer turns up-side-down and holds tight to the rails as the wave passes over, then returning to upright.
Unweight – Reducing pressure on all or part of the board.
Vertical – The vertical section of the wave near or at the lip.
Wall – The rearing up of the wave face to its vertical state.
Warm-up – Gentle exercise to warm muscle, excite circulation, and prepare mentally for activity.
Wax – To aid traction on the deck of a board.
Wetsuit – A suit that heats water trapped next to the skin.
White water – The broken part of a wave.
Wipe Out – To bail, or crash, something we all do.
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